Regions of Namibia
This region comprises the Swakopmund magisterial district up to the Ugab river and includes the enclave of Walvis Bay, former Damaraland south of the Ugab river, and the Omaruru and Karibib magisterial districts. This region is named after the Erongo mountain, a well known landmark in Namibia and in this area. All the main centres within this region, excepting south of former Damaraland, are connected by tarred roads. Gravel roads link this this part with either Omaruru or Swakopmund. The inclusion of former South Damaraland is necessitated by various services for this part which originate in Omaruru. Postal and telecommunications services for Omatjette, Okombahe and Uis are maintained from Omaruru. Veterinary services for these areas are provided by the State Veterinarian based at Omaruru. The maintenance of roads falls under the Roads Superintendent of Omaruru. Medical services are rendered at the clinics of Omatjette, Okombahe, and Uis by medical personnel and private doctors stationed at Omaruru. The main hospital centre for this area is in Omaruru.
The Omaruru, Karibib and Okombahe/Uis/Tsubeses areas are all situated in a semi-arid farming region and have a homogenous farming pattern, which is mostly stock-raising. It also combines communal farming with commercial farming. The needs for production and marketing are therefore very similar and the farming community has a distinct mutual interest which distinguishes their area from the Okahandja/Otjiwarongo areas which are different in various aspects.
Various mining operations occur within this region at places such as Navachab and on a smaller scale at places surrounding Uis and the desert area. Karibib also has a marble industry. Walvis Bay is the principle home of Namibia's fishing industry. Arandis supports mining industry and Swakopmund boasts manufacturing. Arandis is also an Export Processing Zone (EPZ).
This region, with its link to the coast of Namibia, is well developed and should not experience any difficulty in functioning as an administrative unit. Facilities such as schools, hospitals and clinics, the supply of electricity and telecommunication services are, with a few exceptions, well established. The linkage of this predominantly farming area with the more developed areas such as Swakopmund and Walvis Bay is territorially justified and can only be to their advantage.
The region comprises of six constituencies: Omaruru, Karibib, Brandberg, Arandis, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay.
The name assigned to the region reflects the prominence of the Karas Mountain range in the southern part of the region. The Karas region is considered as a natural organic administrative and economic unit and includes the magisterial districts of Keetmanshoop, Karasburg, Bethanie and Luderitz.
The region is a predominantly small stock farming area (eg. goats, sheep). Game farming and irrigation farming along the Naute Dam and the Orange River have gained significantly in importance. A further characteristic of the Region is the harbour town of Luderitz and its fishing and boat building industry, the diamond areas along the coast (on and off shore) with Oranjemund as the main centre, mining enterprises in the southern part of Namibia (eg. Klein Karas area, Rosh Pinah), the Kudu Gas field in the Atlantic Ocean near Luderitz and small-scale industries in Luderitz and Keetmanshoop.
The Hot Water Springs at Ai-Ais (in future probably also the Hot Water Springs in Warmbad), the Kokerboom forest near Keetmanshoop, the Fish River Canyon (the second largest in the world), the Brukaros Mountain (a former volcano) near Berseba, the coastal town Luderitz and several guest and game farms gave become important tourist attractions. The tourism industry has the potential for further expansion.
The economic growth potential of the area is considerable but needs an intensive general development policy. It is a profitable tax-generating area (predominantly diamond mining) for the central government.
The infrastructure in the region is fairly well developed but needs further improvement (eg. upgrading of the railway line from Keetmanshoop to Luderitz and the expansion of the harbour at Luderitz). The main railway line and two main trunk roads give access to South Africa. Keetmanshoop is considered as the capital of the south and has direct air, railway and road links with Windhoek. Its airport is of international standard and suitable for international air traffic. The airfield at Kolmanskop near Luderitz is regularly visited by Air Namibia on its flights to Cape Town and Windhoek. Well developed landing facilities also exist at Oranjemund.
The region comprises six (6) constituencies: Keetmanshoop Urban, Berseba, Luderitz, Oranjemund, Karasburg, Keetmanshoop Rural.
This region comprises the existing Kavango magisterial district with the exception of the Mbukushu area. Since this region and former Ovambo are separated by an extremely sparsely inhabited area which lacks water and means of communication, and since there has not been any traditional relationships between them, the Delimitation Commission decided that it would have made little sense to adjust the existing boundaries here. This region forms a fairly discrete unit which cannot readily be combined with other areas.
On account of its rather higher rainfall than most other parts of Namibia, this region has definite agricultural potential for the cultivation of a variety of crops. There is also potential for organised forestry and agro-forestry, which should stimulate furniture making and related industries.
The region is characterised by an extremely uneven population distribution. The interior is very sparsely inhabited, while the northernmost strip, especially along the Kavango river, has a high population concentration. Subsistence fishing is important, and the possibility of expanding this on a sustainable commercial basis in order to supplement local incomes should be investigated. The promotion of tourism, perhaps in conjunction with the Caprivi region, also deserves attention. This would stimulate local art and wood carving.
Expansion and improvement of clinic and hospital service is necessary, while physical infrastructure and communications remains inadequate for local needs and the promotion of tourism. There is a particular dearth of north-south roads in the region, apart from the Rundu-Grootfontein main road. Rundu has an average type airstrip to handle medium-sized airplanes in daylight only. The establishment of a control tower may permit the handling of passengers and airfreight in all-weather circumstances. The poor condition of the roads and the long distances have a negative effect on tourism; this situation have been improved by the completion of the Trans-Caprivi highway. The provision and standard of schooling also require improvement.
The region comprises six constituencies: Mpungu, Kahenge, Kapako, Rundu, Mashari, Ndiyona.
The name of the Region reflects the prominence of the Khomas Hochland maintain range near Windhoek. This region, centered on Windhoek as the capital of Namibia, is the most central region in the country. While the capital forms the administrative, legislative and judicial centre of the country, with a population representing over eleven percent of the total population, it is also the most important business, educational and transport (rail, road, air) centre of Namibia. Most of Namibia's supply (manufacturing) industries are based there, although it cannot be considered as an industrial centre. Mining has lost its significance in this region. Consequently, the provision of job opportunities remains relatively modest.
The majority of the Windhoek population are regular salary earners, predominantly in the service of the state and related agencies (eg. parastatal organisations) and commerce. As the capital and the most important metropolitan area in the country, it has become attractive to rural dwellers seeking work opportunities.
The infrastructure of Windhoek is well developed but it does not extend equally to all parts of the urban area. The potential for further development of light industries and new settlement areas seem presently to be unlimited.
There is a strong interaction between the farming community in the hinterland of Windhoek and the city. Not only are most of the farming products marketed in or through Windhoek but it is also the most important farming supply centre.
The southern border of the Khomas region includes the northern part of former Rehoboth Gebiet. It comprises an area which is also predominantly cattle-producing with similar agro-economic interests to the rest of the region. It is a properly proclaimed farming area. To a large extent, the border line forms a natural division between the predominantly cattle producing central part of Namibia and the predominantly small stock farming area of southern Namibia.
The region comprises nine (9) constituencies: Wanaheda, Hakahana, Katutura East, Katutura Central, Soweto, Khomasdal North, Windhoek West, Windhoek East, Windhoek Rural.
This region comprises the western part of former Ovambo, Koakoland, Damaraland north of the Ugab river and the Magisterial District of Outjo. This region is named after the Kunene river which forms the north-western border of this particular region. With its large supply of water and its hydro-electric plant, this river will play an increasingly important role in Namibia
The main centers of this region are connected by gravel and tarred roads. Opuwo, Khorixas, Kamanjab and Ruacana are linked with constructed gravel roads whereas Khorixas and Kamanjab are in turn linked to Outjo by tarred roads. The communication system of this region, excepting Ruacana, runs from Outjo and is maintained from this centre. The railway line serving most of Region ends at Outjo from where consumer items and other goods are distributed through the region.
One of the unique features of this region is its many tourist attractions. Places such as former Kaokoland, Damaraland and Ruacana will become more accessible to tourists once the planned tarred road running from Ruacana to Kamanjab and the coast becomes a reality. With Outjo as one of the two entrance points to the National Etosha Game Reserve, tourism will become a major revenue source to this territory which is otherwise somewhat underendowed with natural resources.
At its main centers, the region has facilities such as primary and secondary schools, clinics and hospitals and electrical power supply. Although these facilities are not always sufficient to provide for all the needs of the community, the necessary infrastructure for further development is available.
Furthermore a lively trade has developed between this western part of former Ovambo and more particularly the people of former eastern Kaokoland. There is also evidence that people from former Ovambo have moved into former Kaokoland and vice versa.
The region has been divided into the following six constituencies: Ruacana, Opuwo, Sesfontein, Khorixas, Kamanjab and Outjo.
The Ohangwena region includes the remainder of oukwanjama and a small portion of the northern part of Ondonga. The northern and western parts of the region are the most densely populated of this essentially subsistence agricultural region in which small scale mahangu cultivation and the keeping of cattle form the predominant activities. Although the Region depends on rain fed agriculture, other crops can be established under intensive cultivation.
The main settlements in the region straddle the good tarred road from the Angolan border to Ondangua, where it joins the Oshakati-Tsumeb trunk road. The eastern part of the region possesses good grazing land, but the shortage of water and poor communications render it uninhabitable at present. There is a reasonable gravel road from Oshikango to Onkongo, and if a road connection linking the region to Rundu were to be built, it would greatly increase the agricultural potential of the area.
The region comprises of ten constituencies: Ongenga, Engela, Oshikango, Ondobe, Eenhana, Omundaungilo, Okongo, Ohangwena, Endola, Epembe.
This region lies on the eastern border of Namibia and comprises the magisterial district of Gobabis as well as former Hereroland East, Areas No. 1, 2 and 3. The name Omaheke is the Herero word for Sandveld. A large part of this region, notably the former Hereroland East area, is known as the Sandveld. Because of its location and inaccessibility from other parts of Namibia, this region, although sparsely populated, forms an economic and administrative unit. Gobabis is the main centre of this area and also its main business area, as it is linked with the capital of Namibia by rail and tarred road. This infrastructure serves as the main supply line for the region.
All the other centres in the area are linked with Gobabis by road. Many other services are rendered from Gobabis to the region, such as the Police Divisional Head Quarters, which is situated in Gobabis. Clinics in the region are served by medical practisioners based in Gobabis, and there are two hospitals and a clinic there serving the region.
The agricultural patterns of this region is to a large extent homogenous. Most of the 900 commercial and 3 500 communal farmers in this area are cattle breeders. A regional office of the Ministry of Agriculture, serving this whole area, is based at Gobabis.
The potential for developing this area is high. A factor which will play a significant role in this respect is the building of a tarred road (the Trans-Kalahari Highway) connecting Namibia with Botswana and other parts of Africa. This road will run through Gobabis. Various other industries are possible.
The area forms a unit with the outlying parts all aimed at the main centre, namely Gobabis. The various facilities available in the region will form the core around which further development can be undertaken.
The region comprises six constituencies: Otjinene, Otjozondjou, Steinhausen, Gobabis, Buitepos, Aminuis.
This region includes the existing Kolonkadhi, Kwaluudhi, Ongandjera and a small portion of the western Oukwanjama. Uutapi at Ombalantu forms a natural centre for this region. Mopani tree is the dominant species; the Makalani Palms decrease rapidly westwards from the border with Oshana region. The change in vegetation type reflects ecological conditions forming a natural boundary between the two regions.
The northern part of this region is far more densely populated than the south, where the grazing is of poor quality and the water generally saline. This is predominantly an agricultural region in which mahangu is cultivated successfully. With intensive fertilisation and tilling of the soil, self-sufficiency should be attainable. Non-agricultural employment opportunities will need to be created, however. Potential for this does exist with the availability of some water from the canal and the planned expansion of the electricity grid to include Ombalantu and surrounding settlements.
The region is traversed by a high standard trunk road which provides a direct link to adjacent regions and the rest of the country. Although passenger and freight transport along this route is easy, the rest of this road network, in common with all the communal areas of northern Namibia, is of poor quality. There is no properly equipped hospital in the region, although the network of clinics does provide basic health services. The provision of schools is also inadequate and improvement in the position is expected.
The region comprises of nine constituencies: Onesi, Tsandi, Uutapi, Okalongo, Oshikuku, Elim, Okahao, Anamulenge, Ogongo.
This region includes Uukwambi, the southwestern part of Oukwanjama and the northwestern part of Ondonga. The name Oshana lends itself well to this region as it describes the most prominent landscape feature in the area, namely the shallow, seasonally inundated depressions which underpin the local agro ecological system. Although communications are hindered during the rainy season, the fish which breeds in the oshanas provide an important source of dietary protein.
The Oshakati-Ongwediva-Ondangwa complex has experienced dramatic urban growth in recent years and forms an important commercial and potential industrial focus. As a whole, it forms the second largest population concentration in Namibia after Windhoek, but because of its Bantustan history it still lacks basic infrastructure and most of the services and facilities normally found in urban areas of this size. The majority of businesses in northern Namibia are located here, providing a significant amount of employment. However, urbanisation is continuing and unemployment has risen since the withdrawal of the South African Security forces. Creation of non-agricultural job opportunities will therefore need to receive urgent attention. For planning and development purposes, it will be important to consider this complex as a single, increasingly integrated entity. Consequently, the Commission deemed it appropriate to include it in one region rather than dividing it between two or more regions.
Omahangu is the principal staple crop grown in this Region, which is suitable for agriculture. However, the soil is exhausted over much of the central area and requires substantial fertilisation in order to maintain reasonable productivity. Cattle also do well here and herds are extensive. The southern portion of the Region is an extensive savannah plain stretching as far as the Etosha Pan, but the generally high salinity of soil and water render it unsuitable for grazing or cultivation.
The area is far more densely populated in the north, which is linked to Tsumeb and other regions by the high quality trunk road; this also facilitates the transport of freight. However, a significant improvement in the rest of the road network and in other forms of telecommunications are required. Oshakati and Ondangwa have airstrips which handle medium-sized airplanes in daylight only and provision can be made for both passengers and airfreight. The establishment of a control tower may contribute to the improvement of all-weather air and transport. Reasonably good hospitals are situated at Oshakati and Onjiipa which supports a number of clinics. Although both primary and secondary schools are spread across the region, there are still too few.
The region comprises of nine constituencies: Oshakati, Ongwediva, Okaku, Okatana, Ondangwa, Ompundja, Uukwiyu, Okatjali, Uuvudhiya.
The region comprises the remainder of Ondonga and the existing magisterial district of Tsumeb. Whereas the northern part of the region is agricultural, the main economic activities in the southern part are cattle rearing and mining. The two areas have important cultural and historical links in that the Ndonga people have extracted copper at Tsumeb since the earliest times in order to make rings and tools.
Omahangu is the principal crop in the north, while cattle are reared in the Mangetti and the Tsumeb district. Although the Tsumeb mine has only a limited life span, it cab together with the associated support industries and services, provide a boost for the communal areas of the Region.
Communication are good in much of the area: a tarred trunk road runs across the region, linking it to both the south and the north of the country. The national microwave network terminates at Tsumeb, but telecommunications are now carried across the Region and as far as Oshakati by means of a newly laid optical fiber cable.
The region's population has grown significantly over recent years, partly as a result of redistribution within the Oshiwambo speaking area. Apart from Tsumeb and Oniipa (in the extreme northwest), people have settled in a corridor along the trunk road, sometimes forming quite dense concentrations. Construction of a road connection with Okavango would help tremendously to promote trade between them.
This region comprises ten constituencies: Oniipa, Onayena, Olukonda, Omuntele, Okatope, Okangolo, Omuthiygwiipundi, Engodi, Guinas, Oshikoto.
This region comprises the Okahandja, Otjiwarongo and Grootfontein magisterial districts as well as the former Hereroland-West communal area and former Bushmanland down to the Otjozondjou River. An outstanding landmark within this Region is the Waterberg.
Grootfontein, Otavi, Otjiwarongo and Okahandja are linked by rail and by the main trunk road running from south to north. Communication systems between these areas are also of a high standard. The inclusion of former Bushmanland and Hereroland-West in this region are, inter alia, necessitated by the fact that former Bushmanland is connected with Grootfontein by a gravel tarred road, whereas it is only linked by tracks with areas such as Hereroland-East and Gobabis. In the rainy season this connection is usually severed. The same is true of former Hereroland-West which is linked with Otjiwarongo and Okahandja by gravel roads whereas its links with former Hereroland-East and Gobabis are tenuous.
The farming activities of Okahandja, Otjiwarongo and former Hereroland-West are homogenous as these parts are well known for cattle farming. The Otavi and Grootfontein districts, and to a lesser extent also Otjiwarongo, are the granary of Namibia. The region also has a great potential to establish industries connected with such farming activities and by-products of it. It further has the advantage of combining communal and commercial farming in the same region.
The infrastructure of the region is such that effective administration is possible. The state of development in the area, and the facilities available, form a solid basis for future development. This region has the potential to be economically independent.
The region comprises of six constituencies: Grootfontein, Otavi, Okakarara, Otjiwarongo, Okahandja, Omatako.
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